Xu Hong is a researcher at the Institute of Archaeology, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences. Also, he is a professor and tutor for graduate students of the University of Chinese Academy of Social Sciences. From 1999 to 2019, he served as the Erlitou (二里头) archaeological team leader in Yanshi, Henan Province, and was a council member of the Chinese Archaeological Society. His research fields include the archaeology of Xia, Shang, Zhou Dynasties, and ancient Chinese cities. Also, he was engaged in archaeological research on the formation of Chinese Civilization and early states.
He is an advocate and practitioner of public archaeology. For many years, he has written books on archaeology which he publicized, including the "Interpreting Early China" series, and What's China Like in 2000 B.C., Dynamic Interpret.