The 1793 Macartney Mission marked the inaugural diplomatic encounter between China and Britain, significantly influencing the historical trajectory of both nations. Surprisingly, the intricacies of communication and translation during this pivotal mission have seldom been the focal point of scholarly inquiry. This book delves into the crucial role played by translation in the Sino-British dialogue. Organized chronologically across seven chapters, the narrative is propelled by both temporal considerations and a spectrum of thematic issues. By dissecting the backgrounds of the mission’s interpreters and meticulously analyzing the translation and reinterpretation of diverse documents - letters of state, imperial edicts, gift lists, correspondences, and more - the book embarks on a comprehensive exploration. This examination, drawing upon a wealth of multilingual archives and documents, reconstructs the translation process of the Macartney Mission, revealing the profound influence translation had on not only the mission but also China’s diplomatic activities in the modern era. Rich in detail and rigorous in discussion, this book offers fresh perspectives on various aspects of mission studies, effectively bridging gaps in existing research. It stands as a valuable reference and model for scholars delving into the history of translation in modern China and the history of Sino-British diplomacy.